httplib
index
/usr/local/lib/python2.3/httplib.py

HTTP/1.1 client library
 
<intro stuff goes here>
<other stuff, too>
 
HTTPConnection go through a number of "states", which defines when a client
may legally make another request or fetch the response for a particular
request. This diagram details these state transitions:
 
    (null)
      |
      | HTTPConnection()
      v
    Idle
      |
      | putrequest()
      v
    Request-started
      |
      | ( putheader() )*  endheaders()
      v
    Request-sent
      |
      | response = getresponse()
      v
    Unread-response   [Response-headers-read]
      |\____________________
      |                     |
      | response.read()     | putrequest()
      v                     v
    Idle                  Req-started-unread-response
                     ______/|
                   /        |
   response.read() |        | ( putheader() )*  endheaders()
                   v        v
       Request-started    Req-sent-unread-response
                            |
                            | response.read()
                            v
                          Request-sent
 
This diagram presents the following rules:
  -- a second request may not be started until {response-headers-read}
  -- a response [object] cannot be retrieved until {request-sent}
  -- there is no differentiation between an unread response body and a
     partially read response body
 
Note: this enforcement is applied by the HTTPConnection class. The
      HTTPResponse class does not enforce this state machine, which
      implies sophisticated clients may accelerate the request/response
      pipeline. Caution should be taken, though: accelerating the states
      beyond the above pattern may imply knowledge of the server's
      connection-close behavior for certain requests. For example, it
      is impossible to tell whether the server will close the connection
      UNTIL the response headers have been read; this means that further
      requests cannot be placed into the pipeline until it is known that
      the server will NOT be closing the connection.
 
Logical State                  __state            __response
-------------                  -------            ----------
Idle                           _CS_IDLE           None
Request-started                _CS_REQ_STARTED    None
Request-sent                   _CS_REQ_SENT       None
Unread-response                _CS_IDLE           <response_class>
Req-started-unread-response    _CS_REQ_STARTED    <response_class>
Req-sent-unread-response       _CS_REQ_SENT       <response_class>

 
Modules
       
errno
mimetools
socket

 
Classes
       
exceptions.Exception
HTTPException
BadStatusLine
ImproperConnectionState
CannotSendHeader
CannotSendRequest
ResponseNotReady
IncompleteRead
InvalidURL
NotConnected
UnimplementedFileMode
UnknownProtocol
UnknownTransferEncoding
HTTPException
BadStatusLine
ImproperConnectionState
CannotSendHeader
CannotSendRequest
ResponseNotReady
IncompleteRead
InvalidURL
NotConnected
UnimplementedFileMode
UnknownProtocol
UnknownTransferEncoding
HTTP
HTTPS
HTTPConnection
HTTPSConnection
HTTPResponse
LineAndFileWrapper
mimetools.Message(rfc822.Message)
HTTPMessage
SharedSocket
SharedSocketClient
FakeSocket
SSLFile

 
class BadStatusLine(HTTPException)
    
Method resolution order:
BadStatusLine
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods defined here:
__init__(self, line)

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class CannotSendHeader(ImproperConnectionState)
    
Method resolution order:
CannotSendHeader
ImproperConnectionState
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__init__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class CannotSendRequest(ImproperConnectionState)
    
Method resolution order:
CannotSendRequest
ImproperConnectionState
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__init__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class FakeSocket(SharedSocketClient)
     Methods defined here:
__getattr__(self, attr)
__init__(self, sock, ssl)
close(self)
makefile(self, mode, bufsize=None)
recv(self, len=1024, flags=0)
send(self, stuff, flags=0)
sendall = send(self, stuff, flags=0)

 
class HTTP
    Compatibility class with httplib.py from 1.5.
 
  Methods defined here:
__init__(self, host='', port=None, strict=None)
Provide a default host, since the superclass requires one.
close(self)
connect(self, host=None, port=None)
Accept arguments to set the host/port, since the superclass doesn't.
getfile(self)
Provide a getfile, since the superclass' does not use this concept.
getreply(self)
Compat definition since superclass does not define it.
 
Returns a tuple consisting of:
- server status code (e.g. '200' if all goes well)
- server "reason" corresponding to status code
- any RFC822 headers in the response from the server
putheader(self, header, *values)
The superclass allows only one value argument.

Data and other attributes defined here:
debuglevel = 0

 
class HTTPConnection
     Methods defined here:
__init__(self, host, port=None, strict=None)
close(self)
Close the connection to the HTTP server.
connect(self)
Connect to the host and port specified in __init__.
endheaders(self)
Indicate that the last header line has been sent to the server.
getresponse(self)
Get the response from the server.
putheader(self, header, value)
Send a request header line to the server.
 
For example: h.putheader('Accept', 'text/html')
putrequest(self, method, url, skip_host=0)
Send a request to the server.
 
`method' specifies an HTTP request method, e.g. 'GET'.
`url' specifies the object being requested, e.g. '/index.html'.
request(self, method, url, body=None, headers={})
Send a complete request to the server.
send(self, str)
Send `str' to the server.
set_debuglevel(self, level)

Data and other attributes defined here:
auto_open = 1
debuglevel = 0
default_port = 80
response_class = <class httplib.HTTPResponse>
strict = 0

 
class HTTPException(exceptions.Exception)
     Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__init__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class HTTPMessage(mimetools.Message)
    
Method resolution order:
HTTPMessage
mimetools.Message
rfc822.Message

Methods defined here:
addcontinue(self, key, more)
Add more field data from a continuation line.
addheader(self, key, value)
Add header for field key handling repeats.
readheaders(self)
Read header lines.
 
Read header lines up to the entirely blank line that terminates them.
The (normally blank) line that ends the headers is skipped, but not
included in the returned list.  If a non-header line ends the headers,
(which is an error), an attempt is made to backspace over it; it is
never included in the returned list.
 
The variable self.status is set to the empty string if all went well,
otherwise it is an error message.  The variable self.headers is a
completely uninterpreted list of lines contained in the header (so
printing them will reproduce the header exactly as it appears in the
file).
 
If multiple header fields with the same name occur, they are combined
according to the rules in RFC 2616 sec 4.2:
 
Appending each subsequent field-value to the first, each separated
by a comma. The order in which header fields with the same field-name
are received is significant to the interpretation of the combined
field value.

Methods inherited from mimetools.Message:
__init__(self, fp, seekable=1)
getencoding(self)
getmaintype(self)
getparam(self, name)
getparamnames(self)
getplist(self)
getsubtype(self)
gettype(self)
parseplist(self)
parsetype(self)

Methods inherited from rfc822.Message:
__contains__(self, name)
Determine whether a message contains the named header.
__delitem__(self, name)
Delete all occurrences of a specific header, if it is present.
__getitem__(self, name)
Get a specific header, as from a dictionary.
__len__(self)
Get the number of headers in a message.
__setitem__(self, name, value)
Set the value of a header.
 
Note: This is not a perfect inversion of __getitem__, because any
changed headers get stuck at the end of the raw-headers list rather
than where the altered header was.
__str__(self)
get = getheader(self, name, default=None)
Get the header value for a name.
 
This is the normal interface: it returns a stripped version of the
header value for a given header name, or None if it doesn't exist.
This uses the dictionary version which finds the *last* such header.
getaddr(self, name)
Get a single address from a header, as a tuple.
 
An example return value:
('Guido van Rossum', 'guido@cwi.nl')
getaddrlist(self, name)
Get a list of addresses from a header.
 
Retrieves a list of addresses from a header, where each address is a
tuple as returned by getaddr().  Scans all named headers, so it works
properly with multiple To: or Cc: headers for example.
getallmatchingheaders(self, name)
Find all header lines matching a given header name.
 
Look through the list of headers and find all lines matching a given
header name (and their continuation lines).  A list of the lines is
returned, without interpretation.  If the header does not occur, an
empty list is returned.  If the header occurs multiple times, all
occurrences are returned.  Case is not important in the header name.
getdate(self, name)
Retrieve a date field from a header.
 
Retrieves a date field from the named header, returning a tuple
compatible with time.mktime().
getdate_tz(self, name)
Retrieve a date field from a header as a 10-tuple.
 
The first 9 elements make up a tuple compatible with time.mktime(),
and the 10th is the offset of the poster's time zone from GMT/UTC.
getfirstmatchingheader(self, name)
Get the first header line matching name.
 
This is similar to getallmatchingheaders, but it returns only the
first matching header (and its continuation lines).
getheader(self, name, default=None)
Get the header value for a name.
 
This is the normal interface: it returns a stripped version of the
header value for a given header name, or None if it doesn't exist.
This uses the dictionary version which finds the *last* such header.
getheaders(self, name)
Get all values for a header.
 
This returns a list of values for headers given more than once; each
value in the result list is stripped in the same way as the result of
getheader().  If the header is not given, return an empty list.
getrawheader(self, name)
A higher-level interface to getfirstmatchingheader().
 
Return a string containing the literal text of the header but with the
keyword stripped.  All leading, trailing and embedded whitespace is
kept in the string, however.  Return None if the header does not
occur.
has_key(self, name)
Determine whether a message contains the named header.
iscomment(self, line)
Determine whether a line should be skipped entirely.
 
You may override this method in order to use Message parsing on tagged
data in RFC 2822-like formats that support embedded comments or
free-text data.
isheader(self, line)
Determine whether a given line is a legal header.
 
This method should return the header name, suitably canonicalized.
You may override this method in order to use Message parsing on tagged
data in RFC 2822-like formats with special header formats.
islast(self, line)
Determine whether a line is a legal end of RFC 2822 headers.
 
       You may override this method if your application wants to bend the
       rules, e.g. to strip trailing whitespace, or to recognize MH template
       separators ('--------').  For convenience (e.g. for code reading from
       sockets) a line consisting of 
also matches.
items(self)
Get all of a message's headers.
 
Returns a list of name, value tuples.
keys(self)
Get all of a message's header field names.
rewindbody(self)
Rewind the file to the start of the body (if seekable).
setdefault(self, name, default='')
values(self)
Get all of a message's header field values.

 
class HTTPResponse
     Methods defined here:
__init__(self, sock, debuglevel=0, strict=0, method=None)
begin(self)
close(self)
getheader(self, name, default=None)
isclosed(self)
read(self, amt=None)

 
class HTTPS(HTTP)
    Compatibility with 1.5 httplib interface
 
Python 1.5.2 did not have an HTTPS class, but it defined an
interface for sending http requests that is also useful for
https.
 
  Methods defined here:
__init__(self, host='', port=None, key_file=None, cert_file=None, strict=None)

Methods inherited from HTTP:
close(self)
connect(self, host=None, port=None)
Accept arguments to set the host/port, since the superclass doesn't.
getfile(self)
Provide a getfile, since the superclass' does not use this concept.
getreply(self)
Compat definition since superclass does not define it.
 
Returns a tuple consisting of:
- server status code (e.g. '200' if all goes well)
- server "reason" corresponding to status code
- any RFC822 headers in the response from the server
putheader(self, header, *values)
The superclass allows only one value argument.

Data and other attributes inherited from HTTP:
debuglevel = 0

 
class HTTPSConnection(HTTPConnection)
    This class allows communication via SSL.
 
  Methods defined here:
__init__(self, host, port=None, key_file=None, cert_file=None, strict=None)
connect(self)
Connect to a host on a given (SSL) port.

Data and other attributes defined here:
default_port = 443

Methods inherited from HTTPConnection:
close(self)
Close the connection to the HTTP server.
endheaders(self)
Indicate that the last header line has been sent to the server.
getresponse(self)
Get the response from the server.
putheader(self, header, value)
Send a request header line to the server.
 
For example: h.putheader('Accept', 'text/html')
putrequest(self, method, url, skip_host=0)
Send a request to the server.
 
`method' specifies an HTTP request method, e.g. 'GET'.
`url' specifies the object being requested, e.g. '/index.html'.
request(self, method, url, body=None, headers={})
Send a complete request to the server.
send(self, str)
Send `str' to the server.
set_debuglevel(self, level)

Data and other attributes inherited from HTTPConnection:
auto_open = 1
debuglevel = 0
response_class = <class httplib.HTTPResponse>
strict = 0

 
class ImproperConnectionState(HTTPException)
    
Method resolution order:
ImproperConnectionState
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__init__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class IncompleteRead(HTTPException)
    
Method resolution order:
IncompleteRead
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods defined here:
__init__(self, partial)

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class InvalidURL(HTTPException)
    
Method resolution order:
InvalidURL
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__init__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class LineAndFileWrapper
    A limited file-like object for HTTP/0.9 responses.
 
  Methods defined here:
__getattr__(self, attr)
__init__(self, line, file)
read(self, amt=None)
readline(self)
readlines(self, size=None)

 
class NotConnected(HTTPException)
    
Method resolution order:
NotConnected
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__init__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class ResponseNotReady(ImproperConnectionState)
    
Method resolution order:
ResponseNotReady
ImproperConnectionState
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__init__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class SSLFile(SharedSocketClient)
    File-like object wrapping an SSL socket.
 
  Methods defined here:
__init__(self, sock, ssl, bufsize=None)
__iter__(self)
fileno(self)
next(self)
read(self, size=None)
readline(self)
readlines(self, sizehint=0)

Data and other attributes defined here:
BUFSIZE = 8192

Methods inherited from SharedSocketClient:
close(self)

 
class SharedSocket
     Methods defined here:
__del__(self)
__init__(self, sock)
decref(self)
incref(self)

 
class SharedSocketClient
     Methods defined here:
__init__(self, shared)
close(self)

 
class UnimplementedFileMode(HTTPException)
    
Method resolution order:
UnimplementedFileMode
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__init__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class UnknownProtocol(HTTPException)
    
Method resolution order:
UnknownProtocol
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods defined here:
__init__(self, version)

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__str__(...)

 
class UnknownTransferEncoding(HTTPException)
    
Method resolution order:
UnknownTransferEncoding
HTTPException
exceptions.Exception

Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__init__(...)
__str__(...)

 
error = class HTTPException(exceptions.Exception)
     Methods inherited from exceptions.Exception:
__getitem__(...)
__init__(...)
__str__(...)

 
Functions
       
StringIO(...)
StringIO([s]) -- Return a StringIO-like stream for reading or writing
test()
Test this module.
 
A hodge podge of tests collected here, because they have too many
external dependencies for the regular test suite.

 
Data
        HTTPS_PORT = 443
HTTP_PORT = 80
__all__ = ['HTTP', 'HTTPResponse', 'HTTPConnection', 'HTTPSConnection', 'HTTPException', 'NotConnected', 'UnknownProtocol', 'UnknownTransferEncoding', 'UnimplementedFileMode', 'IncompleteRead', 'InvalidURL', 'ImproperConnectionState', 'CannotSendRequest', 'CannotSendHeader', 'ResponseNotReady', 'BadStatusLine', 'error']