- extract_stack(f=None, limit=None)
- Extract the raw traceback from the current stack frame.
The return value has the same format as for extract_tb(). The
optional 'f' and 'limit' arguments have the same meaning as for
print_stack(). Each item in the list is a quadruple (filename,
line number, function name, text), and the entries are in order
from oldest to newest stack frame.
- extract_tb(tb, limit=None)
- Return list of up to limit pre-processed entries from traceback.
This is useful for alternate formatting of stack traces. If
'limit' is omitted or None, all entries are extracted. A
pre-processed stack trace entry is a quadruple (filename, line
number, function name, text) representing the information that is
usually printed for a stack trace. The text is a string with
leading and trailing whitespace stripped; if the source is not
available it is None.
- Like print_exc() but return a string.
- format_exception(etype, value, tb, limit=None)
- Format a stack trace and the exception information.
The arguments have the same meaning as the corresponding arguments
to print_exception(). The return value is a list of strings, each
ending in a newline and some containing internal newlines. When
these lines are concatenated and printed, exactly the same text is
printed as does print_exception().
- format_exception_only(etype, value)
- Format the exception part of a traceback.
The arguments are the exception type and value such as given by
sys.last_type and sys.last_value. The return value is a list of
strings, each ending in a newline.
Normally, the list contains a single string; however, for
SyntaxError exceptions, it contains several lines that (when
printed) display detailed information about where the syntax
The message indicating which exception occurred is always the last
string in the list.
- Format a list of traceback entry tuples for printing.
Given a list of tuples as returned by extract_tb() or
extract_stack(), return a list of strings ready for printing.
Each string in the resulting list corresponds to the item with the
same index in the argument list. Each string ends in a newline;
the strings may contain internal newlines as well, for those items
whose source text line is not None.
- format_stack(f=None, limit=None)
- Shorthand for 'format_list(extract_stack(f, limit))'.
- format_tb(tb, limit=None)
- A shorthand for 'format_list(extract_stack(f, limit)).
- print_exc(limit=None, file=None)
- Shorthand for 'print_exception(sys.exc_type, sys.exc_value, sys.exc_traceback, limit, file)'.
(In fact, it uses sys.exc_info() to retrieve the same information
in a thread-safe way.)
- print_exception(etype, value, tb, limit=None, file=None)
- Print exception up to 'limit' stack trace entries from 'tb' to 'file'.
This differs from print_tb() in the following ways: (1) if
traceback is not None, it prints a header "Traceback (most recent
call last):"; (2) it prints the exception type and value after the
stack trace; (3) if type is SyntaxError and value has the
appropriate format, it prints the line where the syntax error
occurred with a caret on the next line indicating the approximate
position of the error.
- print_last(limit=None, file=None)
- This is a shorthand for 'print_exception(sys.last_type,
sys.last_value, sys.last_traceback, limit, file)'.
- print_stack(f=None, limit=None, file=None)
- Print a stack trace from its invocation point.
The optional 'f' argument can be used to specify an alternate
stack frame at which to start. The optional 'limit' and 'file'
arguments have the same meaning as for print_exception().
- print_tb(tb, limit=None, file=None)
- Print up to 'limit' stack trace entries from the traceback 'tb'.
If 'limit' is omitted or None, all entries are printed. If 'file'
is omitted or None, the output goes to sys.stderr; otherwise
'file' should be an open file or file-like object with a write()
- Calculate correct line number of traceback given in tb.
Obsolete in 2.3.